A young Frenchman, Charles, Duke of Orleans, was one of the
earliest creators of valentines, called "poetical or
amorous addresses." From his confinement in the Tower of
London after the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, he sent several
poems or rhymed love letters or "valentines" to his
wife in France.
During the fifteenth century, one
valentine showed a drawing of a knight and a lady, with Cupid in
the act of sending an arrow to pierce the knight's heart.
the seventeenth century people made their own valentines using
original verse or poems copied from booklets with appropriate
The English attitude toward St. Valentine's Day in
the middle of the eighteenth century is summed up in this verse
printed in Poor Robin's Almanac in 1757:
This month bright Phoebus enters Pisces,
The maids will have good store of kisses,
For always when the fun comes there,
Valentine's Day is drawing near,
And both the men and maids incline
To chuse them each a Valentine;
And if a man gets one he loves,
He gives her first a pair of gloves;
And, by the way, remember this,
To seal the favour with a kiss.
begets more love, and then
That love begets a kiss again,
Until this trade the man doth catch,
And then he doth propose the match,
The woman's willing, tho' she's shy,
She gives the man this soft reply,
"I'll not resolve one thing or other,
Until I first consult my mother."
When she says so, 'tis half a grant,
And may be taken for consent.
Turtle Doves and Love Birds
"Oft have I heard both youth and virgin say
Birds choose their mates, and couples too, this day;
But by their flight I never can divine,
When I shall couple with my Valentine." Herrick
It was thought that birds chose their mate for the year on
February 14. Doves and pigeons mate for life and therefore were
used as a symbol of "fidelity."
The first commercial valentine appeared circa 1800 and were
rather simplistic. But by the 1830's and 1840's Valentines
contained delicate and artistic messages. Valentines made of
fine papers and decorated with satin, ribbon, or lace commanded
high prices. They had pictures of turtledoves, lovers' knots in
gold or silver, bow and arrows, cupids, and bleeding hearts. All
of these symbols have become associated with love and lovers.
the 1840's the first mechanical valentines were introduced. By
pulling a tab, a figure or object on the card could be made to
move. Some had elaborate honeycomb pop-outs or various other
In the 1840's messages on
early valentines included:
"I fondly, truly love thee."
"My orb of day departs with
I love thee! Oh! I love thee!
Dearer art thou than life.
I love thee! I love thee!
Say, wilt thou be my wife?
"'This Valentine's Day,
to the church let's away;
No longer I'll wait, let us marry.
You promised, dear maid, that you would be mine,
If I, till today, would tarry.
Valentine Writers. After 1723, American valentines began to
grow with the import from England of valentine
"writers." A writer was a booklet containing a vast
array of verses and messages which could be copied onto
gilt-edged letter paper or other decorative sheets. One popular
writer contained not only "be my valentine" type
verses for men to send, but also acceptance or
"answers" which women could return. Here is an
A short time since I danc'd with you,
And from that hour lov'd you true;
Your pleasing form, your charming air,
Might with a fabl'd grace compare;
Your accents, so melodious sweet,
Still on my ear does seem to beat;
And 'tis the first wish of my life,
To win my Delia for a wife;
Deign, my sweet maid, a line to send,
And may love's saint my plea defend.
Valentine is very kind,
Nor did a cool reception find;
Your company gave me delight,
When I danced with you t'other night;
Then mutually we did incline,
Our hearts to love, my Valentine.
From then on, Valentines became less artistic and
overornamented. During the Gay Nineties they were adorned with
garish spun glass, mother-of-pearl, imitation jewels, or silk
fringe. Proof of the less attractive, cheap-looking valentine
is seen in the "vinegar valentine."
John McLaughlin, a New York printer, created these comic
valentines that were printed on cheap paper in crude colors.
His messages made fun of old maids, teachers, and others.
Comic designs done in 1870 by the American cartoonist Charles
Howard were called "penny dreadfuls"--a
perfect name for them because they sold for a penny and the
designs were dreadful.
The first U.S. made valentines were crafted by a
Mount Holyoke College student, Miss Esther Howland. Her father,
a stationer in Worcester, MA, imported valentines every year
from England. Esther, however, decided to create her own
valentine messages. Around 1830 she began importing lace, fine
papers, and other supplies for her valentines. She employed
several assistants and her brothers helped market her
"Worcester" valentines. As one of our first successful
U.S. career women her sales amounted to about a hundred thousand
dollars annually--not bad for the 1830's.
In our century we've
seen a change from the heavy sentimentality of earlier days to
what can best be described as a light touch. Nowadays a
valentine usually accompanies a more elaborate gift of candy,
flowers, perfume, etc.
American school children usually
celebrate St. Valentine's Day with a party at school. Prior to
the party the children make a decorated box with a slot in the
top. During the party the children distribute valentines to
their classmates' Valentine's Box.
Valentine cards are
manufactured on an enormous scale today that range from the
sentimental to sophisticated to humous valentines. There is a
valentine for everyone--sweetheart, spouse, children, parents,
teacher and even your pet! In terms of the number of greeting
cards sent, Valentine's Day ranks second only to Christmas.
Other Valentine Customs
A young girl was supposed to marry, eventually, the first
eligible male she met on this day. If a girl was curious and
brave enough she could conjure up the appearance of her future
spouse by going to the graveyard on St. Valentine's Eve at
midnight. She would then sing a prescribed chant and run around
the church twelve times.
In England, little children went
about singing of St. Valentine and collecting small gifts. It
was also customary to place valentines on their friends'
Day Gift from Twilight Bridge
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