Customs of Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah is the start of the
Jewish New Year, and is celebrated during the month of Tishrei,
which falls during September and/or October.
On Rosh Hashanah, we think of
ourselves as stepping into the courtyard of the majestic palace,
onto the threshold of the Heavenly Court. As such we refer to G_d
as the King; we look up to Him as to the ruling judge with
expectation mingled with trepidation. Sentence is soon to be
On Rosh Hashanah we beseech
mercy, in recognition of our human frailty. As such we refer to
G_d as our Father who should look down upon his creatures with the
same conciliatory attitude as a loving father has to his wayward
Rosh Hashanah is considered the
time of redemption, the day of judgement and is considered a
solemn festival. On this day, G_d Almighty decides the future fate
for each and every Jewish individual for the coming year (a
person's fate is judged yearly). On Rosh Hashanah we are inscribed
in the Book of Life. On Yom Kippur, which is ten days later, the
Book is sealed.
Although we are celebrating a New
Year, it is also a time when we stand in judgment before our G_d.
This invokes a feeling of mixed emotions — the joy of starting
over (a new beginning), and a time for reflection when one might
look back on unpleasantness and/or misdeeds one might have
committed against others or oneself. Rosh Hashanah and the coming
holiday of Yom Kippur are the holiest holidays in the Jewish
As is customary in Jewish
festivals, observance begins on nightfall the day before Rosh
Hashanah. Celebrants prepare by bathing, receiving haircuts,
donning special clothes and giving treats to children.
Certain types of work are forbidden, though there are some
exceptions. Food preparation and the carrying, transferring or
increasing of the fire are all permitted. Women of the household
light commemorative candles before sunset of the first night and a
half-hour before sunset on the second night of Rosh Hashanah,
reciting blessings over them.
In the Torah, Rosh Hashanah is
also known as Yom Teruah which means the Day of Blowing the Shofar
except when Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbat (Saturday, our day of
rest) the Shofar is not blown. The Shofar or Ram's Horn is
symbolic on this High Holiday and is the oldest wind instrument.
It is blown a number of times during services. When we hear the
sound of the Shofar we are reminded to repent and return to God.
To indicate the hope for a sweet
year, new fruits are added to the holiday dinner table. These
fruits may include any fruit that you have not as yet eaten this
year, however, customary special fruit additions are:
pomegranates, avocados, and persimmons. It is also customary to
dip apples and/or a piece of challah in a dish of honey or sugar
to insure sweetness in the coming year. These foods are eaten with
the accompanying prayer: May it be Thy will, Oh Lord our God, to
renew unto us a happy and pleasant New Year.
The ritual of Tashlich
("casting off") falls out on the first day of Rosh
Hashanah, except when the holiday falls on the Shabbat, at which
time you would go on the second day. We walk to flowing water,
such as a creek or river, on the afternoon of the first day and
empty our pockets into the river, symbolically casting off our
sins. This practice is not discussed in the Bible, but is a
long-standing custom. Religious services for the holiday focus on
the concept of G-d's sovereignty. The common greeting at this time
is L'shanah tovah ("for a good year"). This is a
shortening of "L'shanah tovah tikatev v'taihatem" (or to
women, "L'shanah tovah tikatevi v'taihatemi"), which
means "May you be inscribed and sealed for a good year."
You may notice that the Bible
speaks of Rosh Hashanah as occurring on the first day of the
seventh month. The first month of the Jewish calendar is Nissan,
occurring in March and April. Why, then, does the Jewish "new
year" occur in Tishri, the seventh month? In Judaism there
are several different new years, Nissan 1 is the new year for the
purpose of counting the reign of kings and months on the calendar,
Elul 1 (in August) is the new year for the tithing of animals,
Shevat 15 (in February) is the new year for trees (determining
when first fruits can be eaten, etc.), and Tishri 1 (Rosh
Hashanah) is the new year for years (when we increase the year
number. Sabbatical and Jubilee years begin at this time).
According to tradition, Rosh
Hashanah is the anniversary of the creation of the world and hence
the increase in year number. On this day, we appropriately ask the
heavenly Father to look down with compassion on the world that He
created. In particular, we ask G_d to recall in tenderness the
merits of the fathers. Specifically, we invoke Abraham's faith and
the lengths to which he was prepared to demonstrate his faith in
the one G_d.
These concepts of faith,
kingship, remembrance and paternal mercy are among the several
major themes running through the Rosh Hashanah Prayer Book,
whether in prose, poem or during the shofar-blowing ceremony.
These prayers are read in the synagogue in a special chant with
which the members of the congregation often identify and find
themselves joining in with the reader or chazan in an
The days between Rosh Hashanah
and Yom Kippur are called The Ten Days of Penitence which is also
known as the Ten Days of Teshuvah. During the ten days, up until
Yom Kippur (The Day of Atonement) one is to evaluate themselves
and hopefully come to the realization that they are to do good in
accordance with God's will.